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Things like measurement and calibration


Definition of measurement:

Metrology is the measurement that uses technical and legal means to achieve unified units and accurate and reliable values. In the measurement process, the measuring tools and instruments used are considered to be standard, and they are used to calibrate and verify the measuring tools and instruments under inspection to measure and ensure the reliability of the measurement results obtained when measuring using the measuring tools and instruments under inspection. Measurement involves the definition and conversion of measurement units; the transfer of quantitative values and the measures, procedures and legal systems that must be taken to ensure the uniformity of quantitative values.

Calibration definition:

Under specified conditions, it is a set of operations to determine the indication error of measuring instruments. It is a set of operations that, under specified conditions, determine the relationship between the indicated value of a measuring instrument or measuring system, or the value represented by a physical measuring instrument or reference material, and the corresponding known value being measured. Calibration results can be used to evaluate the indication error of a measuring instrument, measuring system or physical measure, or to assign a value to the markings on any scale.


The difference between metrological verification and metrological calibration

Metrology calibration

The purpose of calibration is to:

⒈Determine the indication error and determine whether it is within the expected tolerance range

⒉ Obtain the reported value of the nominal value deviation, adjust the measuring instrument or correct the indication value

⒊Assign a value to any ruler mark or determine other property values, and assign a value to the reference material properties

⒋Ensure that the value given by the measuring instrument is accurate and achieve traceability.

The basis for calibration is calibration specifications or calibration methods, which can be uniformly stipulated or formulated independently. The calibration results are recorded in the calibration certificate or calibration report, and can also be expressed in the form of calibration factors or calibration curves.

⒌Calibration is a deterministic process performed under specified conditions to determine the execution of a predefined process that determines the relationship between a known input value and an output value.

The basic requirements that calibration should meet are as follows

1) Environmental conditions: If the calibration is performed in a laboratory, the environmental conditions should meet the temperature, humidity and other regulations required by the laboratory. If calibration is performed on site, the environmental conditions shall be those that can meet the on-site use of the instrument.

2) Instrument: As a standard instrument for calibration, its error limit should be 1/3~1/10 of the error limit of the calibrated meter.

3) Personnel: Calibration is different from verification. Personnel performing calibration should undergo effective assessment and obtain corresponding qualification certificates. Only certified personnel can issue calibration certificates and calibration reports, and only such certificates and reports are recognized. of.

For example, for pressure gauge calibration, you can find a third-party calibration unit, such as Radio and Television Measurement. The prerequisite is that it must pass the local measurement standards and the CNAS certificate issued by the National Laboratory Accreditation Service.


Metrological verification

Metrological verification refers to all the work performed to evaluate the measurement performance of measuring instruments and determine whether they are qualified, including inspection and sealing. It is an important form of value transfer and an important measure to ensure accurate and consistent values.

All work performed by the national legal metrology department or other legally authorized organizations to evaluate the measurement performance (accuracy, stability, sensitivity, etc.) of measuring instruments and determine or confirm whether the technical performance is qualified is called verification. The verification includes inspection and sealing. National verification regulations are the basis for verification work.

Measurement benchmark is the abbreviation of national measurement reference instrument, which is used to reproduce and preserve the value of measurement units. It is approved by the measurement administrative department of the State Council and serves as the highest basis for unifying national measurement values.

Technical supervision administrative law enforcement (hereinafter referred to as administrative law enforcement) refers to the technical supervision administrative departments of governments at or above the county level (including counties, the same below), in accordance with technical supervision (measurement, standardization, product quality supervision and quality management, the same below) laws, regulations, Activities to supervise and inspect the implementation of regulations and investigate and deal with illegal activities.

The similarities between the two are:

They are all effective and reasonable methods and means for traceability of quantities, and their purpose is to achieve traceability of quantities.

The differences between the two are:

1. Verification is a comprehensive assessment of the measurement characteristics of a measuring instrument; calibration is mainly to determine its value.

2. Verification must make a conclusion on whether the measuring instrument is qualified or not; calibration does not determine whether the measuring instrument is qualified or not.

3. Calibration should issue a calibration certificate, stamp a calibration mark or a notice of failure; while calibration should issue a calibration certificate or calibration report and reflect the error in the indicated value.

4. Verification is based on verification procedures; calibration is based on calibration specifications/verification procedures.
Metrology calibration classification
radio calibration

       Generally, it is necessary to have domestically leading standard equipment such as network analyzers, spectrum analyzers, multi-function calibrators, measurement receivers, communication transmission analyzers, distortion meters, power factor calibration devices, etc. The measurement range covers from DC to microwave frequency bands. , from analog to digital fields, calibration of analog signal characteristics such as lumped parameters, power, attenuation, pulse waveform parameters, field strength, distortion, modulation, jitter, phase, and digital transmission characteristic parameters can be carried out.

 

Common calibration instruments

High frequency voltage, high frequency power, receiver, attenuation: high frequency probe, filter, measurement receiver, attenuator, power amplifier, high power meter

Analog signal generator, centralized parameter impedance: frequency sweeper, LF/RF signal generator, low-frequency signal source, high-frequency signal source, audio analyzer, standard signal generator, microwave signal source, level oscillator, frequency sweep signal Generator, speaker Fo tester, noise signal source, confidence meter

PCB parameters, RF network parameters: spectrum analyzer, impedance analyzer, modulation degree, distortion degree, electromagnetic compatibility EMI receiver

Comprehensive tester, vector signal analyzer, digital signal generator

Telephone Analyzer: Telephone Analysis and Testing Equipment

Transmission analyzer, digital communication network analyzer, base station tester: comprehensive tester, mobile phone base station tester, logic analyzer, video parameters, modulation degree: video parameters, TV signal generator, AM/FM modulation degree meter, TV field Qiang Yi

Network analyzer, RF parameters, pulse parameters (oscilloscope) jitter, Q table: various types of oscilloscopes, oscilloscope calibrator, pulse parameters/oscilloscope, oscilloscope calibrator, jitter, CD jitter, spectrum analyzer, comprehensive analyzer, Scanner, filter


electromagnetic

Generally, it is necessary to be equipped with standard equipment such as standard inductors, standard capacitors, high-frequency standard inductors, standard resistors, withstand voltage test calibrators, multi-function calibrators, digital multimeters, etc. The uncertainty of DC voltage is up to one millionth. 8. The standard capacitance has an uncertainty of 10 parts per million and can be used to calibrate parameters such as voltage, current, resistance, capacitance (inductance), magnetic induction intensity, magnetic flux and magnetic moment.

 

 

Common calibration instruments

Analog/digital multimeter, multi-function calibrator: voltmeter, millivoltmeter, high-frequency millivoltmeter, noise voltmeter, analog/digital multimeter, overlapping current source, DC potentiometer, AC/DC ratio, transformer, shunt

Standard capacitance, standard inductance, standard resistance: impedance analyzer, turns ratio phase meter, transformer tester, LCR meter, capacitance standard, inductance standard, resistance standard, resistance

Resistors and Bridges: High and Low Resistance Meters

High voltage source, high voltage meter, insulation withstand voltage tester, electrostatic parameters

Power meter, AC power, power supply, electronic load

Semiconductor device parameters, transistor graphical instrument, transistor screening instrument, DC parameter tester


time frequency

Generally, it is necessary to be equipped with time and frequency measurement standards such as rubidium clocks and GPS receivers. The time and frequency accuracy reaches 10 and can be directly traced to the US NIST. The frequency range is from DC to 46GHz, and time and frequency instruments can be calibrated.

 

 

Common calibration instruments

Frequency standards, high-stable crystal oscillators, frequency synthesizers: frequency standards, frequency synthesizers, frequency converters, quartz frequency standards

Frequency meter, counter, stopwatch: frequency meter, universal counter, digital electronic millisecond meter, microwave frequency meter, time interval measuring instrument, mechanical stopwatch, electronic stopwatch and other timers

Modulation Domain Analyzer

frequency stability comparator

Quartz analyzer, clock analyzer


length

Generally, it is necessary to be equipped with a laser interferometer, a precision length measuring instrument, a universal tool microscope, a precision universal length measuring instrument, an indicator meter, a step gauge, etc. The measuring range is from 0 to 10 meters, and the resolution can be up to 0.01 μm. It can carry out the calibration of optical instruments, precision measuring instruments and equipment, universal standards, gauges, linear instruments, angles, surface roughness, plane straightness and other items.

 

 

Common calibration instruments

End measures: gauge blocks, gauge block accessories, step gauges

Universal energy tools: height gauge, height gauge, dial indicator (thousand indicator), digital display indicator, snap gauge, dial indicator snap gauge, snap gauge with gauge, vernier (digital display) caliper, depth vernier (digital display) Caliper, height vernier (digital display) caliper, dial caliper, vernier tooth measuring caliper, thickness gauge, outer diameter (inner diameter) micrometer, common normal micrometer, threaded micrometer, depth micrometer, internal measurement (inner diameter) micrometer, three-jaw inner diameter Micrometer, micrometer with watch, combination angle ruler, odd groove micrometer...

Flatness, linear measuring tools, angle measuring tools, line type: standard flat crystal, flat flat crystal, parallel flat crystal, platform flat plate, knife-edge ruler, knife-edge square ruler, three-sided ruler, four-sided ruler, flat ruler, square box, Grinding flat ruler, angle block, angle gauge, combined angle gauge, angle ruler, angle table, protractor, sine gauge, right square ruler, goniometer, polyhedron, scraper fineness gauge, V-shaped frame, steel ruler ,Steel tape……

Limit gauges, thread types: three-pin, ring gauge, plug gauge...

Optical instruments: plane equal thickness interferometer, optical filter, optical quadrant, projector, universal tool microscope, magnifying glass

Measuring instruments, coordinate measuring instruments: right square ruler, multi-tooth indexing table, indexing head, collimator, level meter, level zero level meter, height meter (two-dimensional), comparator, torsion spring Comparators, coordinate measuring machines, projectors...

Engineering measurement: spirit level, spirit level, level, engineering quality detector

Micromeasuring tools: inductance comparator, inclined block micrometer calibrator, micrometer, lever gear micrometer

Surface roughness: surface roughness sample block, engraved line sample, roughness (profile) meter


Mechanics

Generally, it is necessary to be equipped with pressure calibration devices, precision balances and other precision instruments and standard parts. Weights can be measured to E1 level, torque, and pressure. Projects such as quality, weighing instruments, force measurement, pressure, torque, hardness, vibration, density, capacity, etc. can be carried out. calibration.

 

 

Common calibration instruments

Weights, mass measuring instruments: standard weights, special weights

Digital indicating scales, analog indicating scales, non-self-indicating scales and other weighing instruments: electronic balances, mechanical balances, rack balances, torque balances, liquid specific gravity balances, electronic scales, electric belt scales, quantitative packaging scales, quantitative automatic weighing instruments, bench scales

Tensile testing machine, push-pull force meter, torque and other force value measuring instruments: push-pull force meter, digital pressure gauge, universal material testing machine

Pressure gauges and vacuum gauges: precision pressure gauges, digital pressure gauges, pressure (differential pressure, absolute pressure) transmitters, liquid pressure gauges, U-shaped pressure gauges, oxygen acetylene gauges, various levels of pressure gauges

Various types of hardness testers for cloth, rubber, rubber, etc.: hardness testers and other metal hardness testers, Shore hardness testers, constant load rubber international hardness testers, miniature rubber international hardness testers and other non-metal hardness testers, Webster hardness testers gauge, Barcol hardness tester

Speed measuring instruments: mechanical tachometer, digital tachometer, speed calibration device

Vibration instruments: mechanical vibration table, digital vibration table, vibration tester, vibration meter

Density meter, hydrometer, Baume meter

Glass measuring tools: burette, measuring cylinder, measuring cup, graduated straw

Special equipment for safety regulations: spring impact bell, swing testing machine, life testing machine, ball pressure device, test chamber, pendulum impact testing machine


Thermal

Generally, it is necessary to be equipped with thermal measurement and calibration equipment such as precision temperature acquisition system, radiation thermometer calibration device, standard humidity calibration box, constant temperature and humidity chamber, standard constant temperature bath, etc. It can carry out temperature primary instruments, temperature secondary instruments, temperature sensors, and radiation thermometers. , humidity control equipment, temperature control equipment, environmental test equipment and other items of calibration.

 

 

Common calibration instruments

Digital temperature indication regulator and other temperature secondary instruments: digital thermometer, high-precision digital thermometer, temperature stack module, temperature inspection instrument, temperature recorder, temperature data collector, furnace temperature tracker, temperature transmitter, temperature calibration devices, semiconductor temperature controllers, electronic automatic balancing bridges, moving coil instruments with thermal resistors (thermocouples), digital thermometers, digital temperature control meters, soldering iron thermometers, moving coil proportional integral differential instruments, temperature measuring instrument calibration instruments, Temperature calibrator, automatic thermometer, temperature inspection instrument, temperature transmitter, automatic balance recorder

Environmental testing equipment such as high and low temperature chambers, thermostats, various ovens, and ovens:

Hygrometer: mechanical temperature and humidity meter, digital temperature and humidity meter, digital temperature and humidity meter, psychrometer, capacitive digital dew point meter, temperature and humidity controller, temperature and humidity transmitter, temperature and humidity recorder, humidity sensor

Mercury thermometer and other expansion thermometers: second-class standard mercury thermometer, standard mercury-based thermometer, precision liquid-in-glass thermometer, ordinary liquid-in-glass thermometer, liquid-in-glass thermometer for petroleum products, high-precision liquid-in-glass thermometer, high-precision liquid-in-glass thermometer for petroleum products, Working Beckman thermometer, electric contact glass thermometer, pressure thermometer, bimetal thermometer, standard copper-constan thermocouple, working copper-constan thermocouple, working cheap metal thermocouple

Various types of thermocouples and resistance thermometers: industrial platinum resistance thermometers, industrial copper resistance thermometers, pointer type semiconductor point thermometers, self-calibrating platinum resistance thermometers

Radiation Thermometer: Infrared Thermometer

Special temperature environment measurement: yellowing resistance testing machine, xenon aging chamber, ozone aging test chamber, ultraviolet weathering testing machine


Physics and Chemistry

It is equipped with testing equipment and standard materials such as rotational viscometer, polarimeter, gas chromatograph, liquid chromatograph, atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Calibration of chromatography, spectrum, wavelength, transmittance, conductivity, acidity, viscosity, optical rotation, concentration and other items can be carried out.

 

 

Common calibration instruments

pH: acidimeter, ion meter, potentiometric titrator

Spectrum or analyzer: visible spectrophotometer, UV spectrophotometer, conductivity meter, gas chromatograph, liquid chromatograph, gas chromatography mass spectrometer, atomic absorption spectrophotometer, fluorescence spectrometer, emission spectrometer

Viscosity: Viscometer

Polarimeter, sugar content (content) meter


Optics/Acoustics


Common calibration instruments


Optical power meter, optical multimeter, light source, optical attenuator, optical time domain reflectometer (OTDR), optical loss tester, optical spectrum analyzer, colorimeter, whiteness meter, illuminance meter, electroacoustic meter, noise meter, sound meter Level meter.

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